بررسی تأثیر زمین‌لرزه بر تراز آب‌های زیرزمینی و آبدهی چاه‌های آب ناشی از زمین‌لرزه 20 فروردین‌ماه 1392 کاکی با بزرگای گشتاوری 3/6 در استان بوشهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته ارشد، گروه ژئوفیزیک، دانشگاه خلیج فارس، بوشهر، ایران

2 استادیار،گروه ژئوفیزیک، دانشگاه خلیج فارس، بوشهر، ایران

چکیده

با وقوع زمین­لرزه، بخشی از انرژی آزاد­شده به­صورت امواج کشسان از کانون زمین­لرزه منتشر می­شود. سرعت این امواج به جنس محیط کشسان و الگوی انتشار آنها به سازوکار گسلش بستگی دارد. پاسخ محیط به امواج طولی به­صورت تراکم و انبساط محیط ظاهر می­شود. تراکم و انبساط محیط می­تواند منجر به تغییراتی در محیط انتشار امواج ازجمله تغییر در سطح تراز آب و تغییرات آبدهی در آبخوان­ها، چاه­ها و چشمه­ها قبل، حین و بعد از وقوع یک رویداد لرزه‌ای شود. تغییرات تراز آب می­تواند در ایجاد دگرشکلی در پوسته، تأثیر بر منابع آبی و تولیدات نفتی، شروع روانگرایی، کنترل توزیع پس‌لرزه­ها، چکانش زمین‌لرزه­های جدید و فوران گل‌فشان­ها مؤثر باشد؛ از‌این‌رو، این تغییرات نسبت به دیگر اثرهای هیدرولوژیکی زمین­لرزه از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار است. در این مطالعه، اثر زمین­لرزه کاکی (3/6Mw ) واقع در استان بوشهر (20 فروردین­ماه 1392) بر تراز و آبدهی چاه­های مناطق مجاور کانون زمین­لرزه در محدوده‌ای با شعاع 50 کیلومتر از رومرکز بررسی شده است. به این منظور، سطح تراز آب چاه­های پیرامون رومرکز در ماه­های متوالی در سال­های قبل، حین و بعد از وقوع رویداد با هم مقایسه شدند. با توجه به سازوکار کانونی زمین­لرزه، با برآورد مناطق کشش و فشارش در منطقه مطالعاتی، به بررسی همخوانی اثر رویداد در این مناطق با تغییرات سطح تراز آب و آبدهی چاه­ها و چشمه­ها پرداخته شد. ارزیابی­ها بیانگر بالا آمدن سطح آب چاه­ها و افزایش آبدهی چاه­ها و چشمه­هایی است که در محدوده تشعشع امواج فشاری واقع شده‌اند. به عبارت دیگر، بیشتر چاه­هایی که در راستای تابش امواج تراکمی هستند، در یک بازه زمانی چند­ماهه (حداکثر چهار ماه) افزایش سطح تراز را نشان می­دهند.درمقابل، چاه­هایی که در راستای تنش برشی قرار دارند، یا با افت سطح تراز آب مواجه شده‌اند یا تغییر محسوسی نداشته‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of earthquake effects on groundwater level and discharge of water wells following the 2013 Mw 6.3 Kaki earthquake occurred in Bushehr province (Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • sara goudarzi 1
  • saeed zarei 2
  • Seyyed Reza mansouri 2
1 MSc.Studen, faculty of science, department of geophysics, Persian Gulf University, Bousheur. Iran
2 Assistant Professor, faculty of science, department of geophysics, Persian Gulf University, Bousheur.
چکیده [English]

When an earthquake occurs, a part of the released energy is propagated in the form of elastic waves at a speed that depends on the nature of the propagation environment. The radiated energy from earthquake focus in all directions is called radiation pattern and depends on the fault mechanism. The environment response to longitudinal waves appears as compression and expansion of the environment. This can affect on water levels in aquifers, wells and springs before, during and after the event. The changes of the groundwater levels caused by an earthquake are important with respect to other induced parameters; they may generate crustal deformations, affect on water supplies and production of oil wells, initiate liquefaction, control the distribution of aftershocks, trigger earthquakes and mud volcano eruptions. In this study, the effect of April 2013 Kaki earthquake (Mw6.3) on water levels in wells located in a range of 50 km radius around the earthquake epicenter was compared in successive months in the preceding years, during and after the event. Regarding the earthquake focal mechanism and using the estimated tensile and compressive zones in the study area, the correlation of these areas with changes in water levels and discharge of wells and springs was examined. The results of evaluations indicate that the water levels in wells rose and the discharge of the wells and springs located within the radiation range of the pressure waves increased after the earthquake. The wells located in the direction of compressive radiation showed a level of elevation. In contrast, wells located along the shear strain either experienced a drop in water level or had no significant changes. The results show that there is compatibility between the pattern of seismic waves and the changes in the water levels in wells and springs. Because of the difference in characteristics of geological formations, the response of the wells located in the same seismic pattern may not be the same. On the other hand, since the earthquake occurred in the low rainfall time, changes in water levels cannot be caused by rainfall. Field data shows other recorded effects such as the recovery of the springs of Kale and Seyyed Ali which indicates the increase in discharge of water in the region. The liquefaction created in the area is a reason for the passage of a compressive wave that has led to increase of water levels in the wells. The amount of decrease or increase in water level depends on the magnitude and distance to hypocenter of the earthquake and geological characteristics of the well. The water level in the well located in Shonbe village (28.34°N, 51.76°E) increased 1.6 m after the earthquake.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Longitudinal waves
  • Stress
  • Strain
  • focal mechanism
  • Water level changes
  • well discharge
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