مقایسه موردی عملکرد تابستانه راهبردهای توسعه بام سبز و بام خنک بر کیفیت هوا در کلان‌شهر تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه علوم جوی و اقیانوسی (غیرزیستی)، دانشکده علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشته هواشناسی، گروه علوم جوی و اقیانوسی (غیرزیستی)، دانشکده علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس، ایران

10.30499/ijg.2020.105320

چکیده

پیامدهای نامطلوب گسترش کلان­شهرها ازجمله جزیره گرمایی شهری و آلودگی هوا توجه مدیران شهری را به اتخاذ راهکارهای بهبود شرایط محیطی جلب کرده است. با توجه به مساحت زیاد بام­ها در مناطق شهری، به­کارگیری فناوری­های نوین و سازگار با محیط زیست ازجمله توسعه بام سبز و خنک با تعدیل جزیره گرمایی می­تواند نقش مثبتی در کاهش مصرف انرژی سرمایشی و بهبود کیفیت هوا ایفا کند. به­منظور بررسی بازخورد متقابل پارامترهای هواشناسی و تغییر در ساختار شهری و مطالعه اثرهای محتمل جانبی آن بر کیفیت هوا، شبیه­سازی عددی راهبردهای بام سبز و بام خنک با استفاده از مدل کنوپی شهری جفت­شده هواشناسی- شیمی جو (WRF/Chem/SLUCM) در بازه زمانی 15 تا 30 ژوئن سال 2016 در کلان­شهر تهران انجام شده است. نتایج نشان می­دهد که توسعه بام خنک با میانگین شبانه­روزی کاهش دما (C˚ 65/0-) و کاهش شار گرمای محسوس (2 W/m57-) نقش مثبتی در تعدیل جزیره گرمایی تهران دارد. همچنین کاهش غلظت سطحی آلاینده‌های جوی نشان می­دهد که کاهش ارتفاع لایه مرزی و تلاطم در نتیجه کاهش دما تغییر محسوسی در وضعیت کیفیت هوا ایجاد نکرده است. توسعه بام سبز، کاهش (افزایش) روزانه (شبانه) دمای هوا را به همراه داشته است. افزایش دما در طول شب محسوس (C˚ 53/0+) و نتیجه گسیلندگی بالای پوشش گیاهی و همچنین کاهش سرعت باد در مجاورت سطح بام سبز است که روند تهویه طبیعی شهر را کندتر می­کند. مقایسه عملکرد این راهبردها نشان می­دهد که بام خنک اثر سرمایشی محسوس­تری نسبت به بام سبز ایجاد می­کند و روند کاهش آلاینده­ها به­ویژه در طول شب در راهبرد بام خنک مطلوب­تر ارزیابی می­شود؛ بنابراین با توجه به وابستگی اثربخشی سرمایشی بام سبز به میزان رطوبت خاک و مقایسه هزینه‌های احداث بام خنک و نیاز نداشتن آن به زیرساخت­های خاص، توسعه بام خنک در کلان­شهر تهران توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Case Study of Summer Performance of Green Roof and Cool Roof Development Strategies on Air Quality in Tehran Metropolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Malakooti 1
  • Somayeh Arghavani 2
  • Vali Sheikhy 2
1 Associate Prof., Department of Marine and Atmospheric Science (non-Biologic), Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
2 Ph.D Candidate, Department of Marine and Atmospheric Science (non-Biologic), Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran
چکیده [English]

The unfavorable consequences of the expansion of the metropolitans, including urban heat island and air pollution, have attracted the attention of urban managers to strategies for improving environmental conditions. In recent years, along with population growth and high energy consumption, as well as building materials replacing permeable surfaces and urban green spaces, deteriorate the urban heat island phenomenon and air quality in Tehran. Given the significant area of roof surfaces in urban areas, the application of new and environmentally friendly technologies such as the development of cool and green roofs, with heat island modification impact, can play a positive role in reducing cooling energy consumption and improving air quality. Therefore, to study the mutual interaction between meteorological parameters and changes in the urban structure and its possible side effects on air quality, numerical simulation of green roof and cool roof strategies based on the urbanized coupled meteorological-chemical model (WRF/Chem/SLUCM) during the period June 15 to 30, 2016, have been conducted in Tehran metropolitan area. Results show that the development of cool roofs with an averaged diurnal temperature decrease (-0.65°C) and a decrease in the heat flux (-57 W/m2) has a positive role in the reduction of Tehran heat island. Also, the relative reduction of atmospheric pollutant concentrations has also been achieved in numerical simulations. It shows that the decrease in the height of the boundary layer and turbulence process as a result of the decrease in near-surface temperature has not caused a significant change in the air quality in Tehran. The development of green roofs has led to a daily (nightly) decrease (increase) in the air temperature. The increase in temperature during the night was noticeable (up to +0.53°C), and it is a result of the high emissivity of vegetation, as well as a decrease in wind speed in the vicinity of green roof surfaces which slows down the natural ventilation over the city. Furthermore, an increase in the near-surface humidity also predicted in both strategies which improves the environmental comfort satisfaction in the summer hot and dry days. Comparison of these strategies performance shows that cool roof has a significantly sensible cooling effect than green roofs, and the process of reducing pollutants, especially at night, is more favorable in cool roofing strategy. Consequently, since the cooling efficiency of green roofs depends on soil moisture content, as well as comparing construction costs and no need for specific infrastructure, the development of cool roofs in Tehran metropolis is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air Quality
  • green roof
  • Cool Roof
  • WRF/Chem/SLUCM
  • Tehran Metropolis
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