The regional estimates of the GPS satellite and receiver differential code biases

نوع مقاله: مقاله تحقیقی‌ (پژوهشی‌)

نویسندگان

Department of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده

The Differential Code Biases (DCB), which are also termed hardware delay biases, are the frequency-dependent time delays of the satellite and receiver. Possible sources of these delays are antennas and cables, as well as different filters used in receivers and satellites. These instrumental delays affect both code and carrier measurements. These biases for satellites and some IGS stations tend to be obtained from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as daily or monthly constants, which are based on the global ionospheric total electron content (TEC) modeling in the solar-geomagnetic frame. These biases are not provided for regional and local network receivers, and need to be computed by the user. In this study, the regional approach by the spherical Slepian function was used to estimate the GPS satellite and receiver DCBs. Validations using real data showed that this method has significant potential and the ability to yield reliable results, even for a single station DCB estimate.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The regional estimates of the GPS satellite and receiver differential code biases

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Farzaneh
  • Mohammad Ali Sharifi
Department of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Differential Code Biases (DCB), which are also termed hardware delay biases, are the frequency-dependent time delays of the satellite and receiver. Possible sources of these delays are antennas and cables, as well as different filters used in receivers and satellites. These instrumental delays affect both code and carrier measurements. These biases for satellites and some IGS stations tend to be obtained from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as daily or monthly constants, which are based on the global ionospheric total electron content (TEC) modeling in the solar-geomagnetic frame. These biases are not provided for regional and local network receivers, and need to be computed by the user. In this study, the regional approach by the spherical Slepian function was used to estimate the GPS satellite and receiver DCBs. Validations using real data showed that this method has significant potential and the ability to yield reliable results, even for a single station DCB estimate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • DCB
  • GPS
  • Slepian function
  • regional modeling

Arikan, F., Nayir, H., Sezen, U., and Arikan, O., 2008, Estimation of single station interfrequency receiver bias using GPS-TEC: Radio Science, 43, RS4004. Doi: 10.1029/2007RS003785

Chen, W., Hu, C., Gao, S., Chen, Y., and Ding, X., 2004, Absolute ionospheric delay estimation based on GPS PPP and GPS active network: International Symposium on GNSS/GPS, Sydney, Australia, 6–8 Dec, 2004.

Ciraolo, L., Azpilicueta, F., Brunini, C., Meza, A., and Radicella, S., 2007, Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with GPS: Journal of Geodesy, 81, 111–120. Doi: 10.1007/s00190-006-0093-1

Coco, D., Coker, C., Dahlke, S., and Clynch, J., 1991, Variability of GPS satellite differential group delay biases: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems., 27, 931– 938.

 Conte, J., Azpilicueta, F., and Brunini, C., 2011, Accuracy assessment of the GPS-TEC calibration constants by means of a simulation technique: Journal of Geodesy, 85, 1–8. Doi: 10.1007/s00190-011-0477-8

Dach, R., Hugentobler, U., Fridez, P., and Meindle, M., 2007, Bernese GPS software version 5.0: Astronomical Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Dettmering, D., Heinkelmann, R., and Schmidt, M., 2011, Systematic differences between VTEC obtained by different space-geodetic techniques during CONT08: Journal of Geodesy, 85, 443–451.

Durmaz, M., and Karslioglu, M. O., 2014, Regional vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling together with satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs) using semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS): Journal of Geodesy, 89, 347–360. Doi: 10.1007/s00190-014-0779-8

Gao, Y., Heroux, P., and Kouba, J., 1994, Estimation of GPS receiver and satellite L1/L2 signal delay biases using data from CACS: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Kinematic Systems in Geodesy, Geomatics and Navigation, 109–117, August 30–September 2, Banff, Canada.

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H., and Wasle, E., 2008, GNSS – Global Navigation Satellite Systems – GPS, GLONASS, Galileo & more: Springer-Verlag, Wien.

Jakowski, N., Sardon, E., Engler, E., Jungstand, A., and Klahn, D., 1996, Relationships between GPS-signal propagation errors and EISCAT observations: Annals of Geophysics, 14, 1429–1436.

Jin, S. G., Luo, O. F., and Park, P., 2008, GPS observations of the ionospheric F2-layer behavior during the 20th November 2003 geomagnetic storm over South Korea: Journal of Geodesy, 82, 883–892. doi:10.1007/ s00190-008-0217-x

Jin, R., Jin, S., and Feng, G., 2012, M_DCB: Matlab code for estimating GNSS satellite and receiver differential code biases: GPS Solutions, 16, 541–548.

Kee, C., and Yun, D., 2002, Extending coverage of DGPS by considering atmospheric models and corrections: Journal of Navigation, 55, 305–322. doi:10.1017/S0373463302001741

Komjathy, A., Sparks, L., Wilson, B. D., and Mannucci, A. J., 2005, Automated daily processing of more than 1000 ground-based GPS receivers for studying intense ionospheric storms: Radio Science, 40, S6006. Doi: 10.1029/2005RS003279

Lanyi, G. E., and Roth, A., 1998, Comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observation: Radio Science, 23, 483–292.

Lin, L. S., 2001, Remote sensing of ionosphere using GPS measurements: the 22nd Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, 5–9 Nov., Singapore, 2001.

Liu, Z., and Gao, Y., 2003, Ionospheric TEC predictions over a local area GPS reference network: GPS Solutions, 8, 23–29.

Ma, G., and Maruyama, T., 2003, Derivation of TEC and estimation of instrumental biases from GEONET in Japan: Annals of Geophysics, 21, 2083–2093.

Mannucci, A. J., Iijima, B. A., Lindqwister, U. J., Pi, X., Sparks, L., and Wilson, B. D., 1999, GPS and ionosphere: Review of Radio Science, 1996–1999: Oxford University Press, New York.

Misra, P., and Enge, P., 2003, Global Positioning System: Signals, Measurements, and Performance: Ganga–Jamuna Press, Massachusetts.

Nohutcu, M., Karslioglu, M. O., and Schmidt, M., 2010, B-spline modeling of VTEC over Turkey using GPS observations: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 72, 617–624.

Otsuka, Y., Ogawa, T., Saito, A., Tsugawa, T., Fukao, S., and Miyazaki, S., 2002, A new technique for mapping of total electron content using GPS network in Japan: Earth Planets Space, 54, 63–70.

Ray, J., and Senior, K., 2005, Geodetic techniques for time and frequency comparisons using GPS phase and code measurements: Metrologia 42, 215–232. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/42/4/005

Schaer, S., 1999, Mapping and predicting the Earth’s ionosphere using the Global Positioning System: Ph.D. Thesis, Astronomical Institute, University of Berne, Switzerland.

Schaer, S., Beutler, G., Mervart, L., Rothacher, M., and Wild, U., 1995, Global and regional ionosphere models using the GPS double difference phase observable: In Gendt G., and Dick, G., (Eds.), Proceedings of the IGS Workshop 1995 on Special Topics and New Directions, 15–18 May 1995, GFZ, Potsdam, Germany, pp. 77–92.

Seeber, G., 2003, Satellite Geodesy: Foundations, Methods and Application: Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 589 pp.

Sharifi, M. A., and Farzaneh, S., 2013, The spatio–spectral localization approach to modelling VTEC over the western part of the USA using GPS observations: Advances in Space Research, 54, 908–916.

Sharifi, M. A., and Farzaneh, S., 2015, Regional TEC dynamic modeling based on Slepian functions: Advances in Space Research, 56, 907–915.

Wen, D., Liu, S., and Tang, P., 2010, Tomographic reconstruction of ionospheric electron density based on constrained algebraic reconstruction technique: GPS Solutions, 14, 375–380. Doi: 10.1007/s10291-010-0161-0

Wielgosz, P., Grejner-Brzezinska, D., and Kashani, I., 2003, Regional ionosphere mapping with kriging and multiquadratic methods: Journal of Global Positioning System: 2, 48–55.

Wilson, B. D., Mannucci, A. J., 1993, Instrumental biases in ionospheric measurement derived from GPS data: In paper presented at proceedings of the ION GPS-93, Salt Lake City, UT,  September 22–24, pp 1343–1351.

Wilson, B. D., Yinger, C. H., Feess, W. A., and Shank, C., 1999, Newand improved: the broadcast interfrequency biases: GPS World, 10, 56–66.

Yuan, Y., and Ou, J., 1999, The effects of instrumental bias in GPS observations on determining ionospheric delays and the methods of its calibration: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica. Cartogr. Sin., 2, 110–114. Doi: cnki:ISSN: 1001-1595.0.1999-02-002

Zhang, Y., Wu, F., Kubo, N., and Yasuda, A., 2003, TEC measurement by single dual-frequency GPS receiver: paper presented at International Symposium on GPS/GNSS, Tokyo, 15–18, Nov, 2003.