عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The study of the physical properties (geophysical methods) of rocks associated with its mechanical properties has recently received lots of attention. Recent studies show that geophysical methods especially the seismic and geoelectric methods are able to estimate the mechanical parameters and recognize their spatial variations, including anisotropy. Meanwhile, electrical and seismic methods are the most used one.
Electrical measurement is one of the non-invasive geophysical methods commonly used by engineers working in various fields such as mining, geotechnical, civil, underground engineering as well as oil and gas mineral explorations. This method can be applied both in laboratory and in the field. Numerous scientists have focused on the relation between resistivity and porosity. However, there is a very limited study on the relation between the electrical resistivity and the rock properties apart from porosity.
In this paper, changes in the electrical conductivity of rocks during a uniaxial compression test were investigated in laboratory. The uniaxial compressive strength, elastic modulus, and density values of the samples were determined in laboratory. We installed special electrodes on seven nearly saturated core samples in order to measure the resistivity. Core samples had a 52-mm diameter and a 110-mm length. Two-electrode as well as four-electrode arrays were both used in resistivity monitoring in laboratory. Using a four-electrode array minimized the undesirable electrode polarization effects. In the four-electrode array, we used two non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted on the core sample. Our laboratory observations showed that there was not any electrode polarization effect. When we used a two-electrode array, the resistivity changes were less than 5 percent compared to a four-electrode array. In our laboratory investigation, we used different sedimentary core samples including sandstone, fossilioferous limestone and travertine. Maximum resistivity observed for the travertine core sample was less than 12 kohm. During the uniaxial compressive test, deformation measurements were made and the stress–strain curves were plotted. Tangent Young’s modulus values were obtained from stress–strain curves at a stress level equal to 50% of the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength.
Sandstone core samples showed a resistivity increase in the whole strain range. On the contrary, the fossiliferous limestone samples (thin section showed that the sample was composed of tiny calcium fossils in a fine aggregate of micrite cementation) showed a resistivity decrease in the whole strain range. Travertine and limestone showed an intermediate behavior (resistivity increased in the lower strain and it decreased in the higher range). In other words, the onset of new crack formation occurs well inside the quasi-linear part of the stress-strain curve. The quasi-linear portion of the stress-strain curve was the result of a competition between closure of one population of cracks, and the growth of new propagation of the existing cracks.
Resistivity behavior during a uniaxial compression load is closely related to the pores in the lower strain ranges and then to the new induced fractures in higher strains. Our results showed that the electrical resistivity may be a representative measure of the rock properties. Additionally, the effect of certain minerals on the rock’s resistivity must be taken into account. The results indicated that the rock structure had an important effect on the resistivity behavior during a mechanical loading.