عنوان مقاله [English]
Drought and regime changes in precipitation and cloudy changes due to climate change and global warming in many world regions have been considered by scientific communities. The impact of solar activities on atmospheric processes, such as solar radiation, sunspots, solar flares, magnetic storms and other cosmic rays, geophysical phenomena on climate change and global warming, is one of the significant issues. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the role and influence of the Sun and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) on global warming. The fluctuation of geomagnetic activity is accompanied by solar activity, which includes the transfer of electrons and protons from the earth's radiation belts to the ionosphere. This hypothesis is based on the excitation of Rydberg states of atoms and molecules irradiated by solar radiation. A Rydberg atom is an excited atom that has one or more electrons with very high principal quantum numbers, n. The high electric dipole moment of Rydberg systems is a distinguishing characteristic of these systems. The large dipole moment of Rydberg atoms causes a strong interaction of dipole-dipole radiation in the system. The orientation of two molecules that have a large dipole moment with each other induces dipole-dipole interaction.
The ionosphere totally absorbs magnetic storm and solar wind energy fluxes in the UHF, SHF, and EHF bands, resulting in microwave emissions. In a lower atmosphere, this event reduces the separation of the cluster ions. The amount of created water clusters is highly dependent on the orbital quantum number of Rydberg states with the values of (n≥10). In other words, the probability of cluster ion separation is lower for higher-orbital quantum numbers than for smaller quantum numbers. The effect of microwave irradiation on clustering, water vapor concentration, and the generation of thin and young clouds are investigated in this research. It will be explained that such radiations easily penetrate the ionosphere and induce aggregation of molecules in Rydberg states, resulting increase in supramolecular stability. Furthermore, microwave radiation affects clustering and water vapor concentration, increasing the concentration of water vapor clusters. As a result, the probability of recently formed clusters separating decreases considerably, resulting in the accumulation of these clouds with concentrations of less than 10-15 cm-3.
The current work is a part of the scientific investigations of scientific research and techniques in human capabilities in understanding the impact of solar activity and magnetic storms on atmospheric processes and cloud formation. Ionospheric microwave radiation in the framework of excitation of atomic and molecular Rydberg states has been considered for this purpose.
The thin and young clouds generated by solar activity can produce a greenhouse effect, which may eventually play a significant role in periodic global warming on the earth. In recent years, researchers have been attracted to pursue a practical approach, a knowledge-based and reasonable solution to this critical issue. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the basic concepts and physical principles of solar wind and magnetic storms in climate change and improve atmospheric conditions.